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Thursday, May 31, 2012

15 Grammar Goofs That Make You Look Silly

15 Grammar Goofs That Make You Look Silly
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Monday, January 9, 2012

DESCRIPTIVE TEXT

The Social Function: To describe a specific thing, animal, or human being.


Generic Structures:
Identification--> Identifies phenomenon to be described.
Description -->Describes parts, qualities, characteristics.

SIGNIFICANT LEXICOGRAMMATICAL FEATURES:
Focus on specific Participants
Use of Attributive and Identifying Processes.
Frequent use of Epithets and Classifiers in nominal groups.
Use of simple present tense.


Example:
Jakarta is located on the northwest coast of Java Island, at the mouth of the Ciliwung river. It dominates Indonesian’s administrative, economy, cultural activities, and is a major commercial and transportation hub within Asia.
The climate is hot and humid. Rainfall occurs throughout the year. The heaviest rainfall is from November to May. The city lies on a flat, low plain and is likely to be affected by flood during period of heavy rainfall.


The difference between Descriptive and Report

Descriptive: Specific Description
Report: General Description

Monday, September 26, 2011

Procedural Text

THE FUNCTION: To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.


GENERIC STRUCTURE: 1. Goal/aim/purpose
                                             2. Materials (not required for all procedural texts)
                                             3. Steps; e.g-> first, second, then, after that, finally etc.................

SIGNIFICANT LEXICOGRAMMATICAL FEATURES:
•  Focus on generalized
human agents.
• Use of simple present
tense, often Imperative.
• Use mainly of temporal
conjunctions (or numbering to indicate sequence).
• Use mainly of Material
Processes.EXAMPLE:

To insert the SIM card and charge the battery
1.      Remove the  battery cover as shown in the picture
2.      Insert the SIM card. Make sure the SIM card is paced under the silver holders.
3.      Place the battery on the back of the phone with the label side up and the connectors facing each other.
4.      Place the battery cover as shown in the picture and slide it into place.
5.      Connect the charger to the phone and flash symbol on the charger plug must face upward.
6.      It may take up to 30 minutes before the battery icon appears on the screen.
7.      Wait approximately 4 hours or until the battery icon indicates that the battery is fully charged. If you don’t see the battery icon after this time, press any key to activate the screen.
8.      Remove the charger by tilting the plug upwards.

1.       What do we have to do first before inserting the SIM card?
a.      Place the battery on the back of the phone
b.      Connect the charger to the phone
c.       Remove the battery cover
d.      Remove the charger
e.      Place the battery cover and slide it into place
2.       How many steps are needed to insert the SIM card an charge the battery?
a.      5                c. 6                  e. 7
b.      8                d. 9
3.      How long does it take before the battery icon appears on the screen?
a.      10 minutes            c. 1 hours        e. 30 minutes plus 4 hours
b.      30 minutes            d. 4 hours

4.      Remove the charger by titling the plug upwards. The synonym of the underlined words is……
a.      Leading or pointing to a higher place
b.      Leading or pointing to a lower place
c.       Leading or pointing to a nearer side
d.      Moving to the left side
e.      Moving to the right side
5.      Which part of the mobile phone should be placed on the back of the phone with the label side up and the connectors facing each other?
a.      The battery cover             c. SIM card                  e. the silvery holder
b.      The battery                       d. the charger

Thursday, August 4, 2011

ASKING and GIVING ADVICE

CONSIDERATION
advise : /ədˈvaɪs/ verb
e.g: I advise you to learn English. You will undoubtedly need it in your higher studies.
advice : /ədˈvaɪz/ noun
e.g: My father gave me this piece of advice when I was young: never give up
If you want to ask a piece of advice from someone, you can use such expressions:
What do you suggest? 
What do you advise me to do? 
What should I do? 
What ought I to do? 
If you were me what would you do? 
If you want to give a piece of advice to anybody, you can use these expressions:
If I were you, I would…
Why don’t you…?
You’d better…
You ought to/should…
If you take my advice, you will….

For stronger advice we can use 'have to' or 'must':
Example: You must see a doctor.
                You have to practice your speaking skill. Things to remember about asking for and giving advice
-We can’t say an advice or some advices
-"Ought to" has nearly the same meaning as "should". The only difference is that "ought to " refers to a moral or external obligation but should is more of an advice.
Example:
  "You
ought to stop smoking."
  "You
should stop smoking. “
-You'd better" is the short form of "you had better"
Example:
"You
'd better see a doctor!" = "You had better see the doctor"

Reflexive/Emphasizing Pronoun


Reflexive Pronoun  
A Reflexive Pronoun is used as the object of a verb when the action of the verb returns to the doer, i.e.: when subject and object are the same person.
 Example:  
-          She saw herself in the mirror.
-          The boy can dress himself.
-          He cut himself last night.
-          The children behave themselves.
Emphasizing Pronouns
a pronoun used to convey emphasize is called an emphasizing pronoun.
For example:
-          I myself locked the door
-          You yourself asked for money
-          They themselves are responsible for it

Narrative text

The aim of the Narrative text is to amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways; Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution.

GENERIC STRUCTURE;
- Orientation: sets the scene and introduces the participants.
- Evaluation: a stepping back to evaluate the plight.
- Complication: a crisis/problem arises.
- Resolution: the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse.
- Re-orientation: optional.
- Coda : a moral value

Wednesday, August 3, 2011

Recount Text

The aim of Recount text is to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining
The Generic Structure of recount Text is as follows;
- Orientation: provides the setting and introduce participants.
- Events: tell what happened in what sequence. e.g; next, then, etc...
- Re-orientation: Optional-closure of events.
The Lexicogrammatical Features of Recount text:
- Focus on specific participant
- Use of material procssess
- Circumstance of time and place
- Use of past tense
- Focus on temporal sequence, e.q; next, then, after that, etc...